Camouflage


In a survival situation, especially in a hostile environment, you may find it
necessary to camouflage yourself, your equipment, and your movement. It
may mean the difference between survival and capture by the enemy.
Camouflage and movement techniques, such as stalking, will also help you get
animals or game for food using primitive weapons and skills.

PERSONAL CAMOUFLAGE
When camouflaging yourself, consider that certain shapes are particular to humans. The
enemy will look for these shapes. The shape of a hat, helmet, or black boots can give you
away. Even animals know and run from the shape of a human silhouette. Break up your
outline by placing small amounts of vegetation from the surrounding area in your uniform,
equipment, and headgear. Try to reduce any shine from skin or equipment. Blend in with
the surrounding colors and simulate the texture of your surroundings.

Shape and Outline
Change the outline of weapons and equipment by tying vegetation or strips of cloth onto
them. Make sure the added camouflage does not hinder the equipment’s operation. When
hiding, cover yourself and your equipment with leaves, grass, or other local debris. Conceal
any signaling devices you have prepared, but keep them ready for use.

Color and Texture
Each area of the world and each climatic condition (arctic/winter, temperate/jungle, or
swamp/desert) has color patterns and textures that are natural for that area. While color is
self-explanatory, texture defines the surface characteristics of something when looking at
it. For example, surface textures may be smooth, rough, rocky, leafy, or many other
possible combinations. Use color and texture together to camouflage yourself effectively. It
makes little sense to cover yourself with dead, brown vegetation in the middle of a large
grassy field. Similarly, it would be useless to camouflage yourself with green grass in the
middle of a desert or rocky area.
To hide and camouflage movement in any specific area of the world, you must take on the
color and texture of the immediate surroundings. Use natural or man-made materials to
camouflage yourself. Camouflage paint, charcoal from burned paper or wood, mud, grass,
leaves, strips of cloth or burlap, pine boughs, and camouflaged uniforms are a few
examples.
Cover all areas of exposed skin, including face, hands, neck, and ears. Use camouflage
paint, charcoal, or mud to camouflage yourself. Cover with a darker color areas that stick
out more and catch more light (forehead, nose, cheekbones, chin, and ears). Cover other
areas, particularly recessed or shaded areas (around the eyes and under the chin), with
lighter colors. Be sure to use an irregular pattern. Attach vegetation from the area or strips
of cloth of the proper color to clothing and equipment. If you use vegetation, replace it as it
wilts. As you move through an area, be alert to the color changes and modify your
camouflage colors as necessary.
Figure 21-1 gives a general idea of how to apply camouflage for various areas and climates.
Use appropriate colors for your surroundings. The blotches or slashes will help to simulate
texture.

Shine
As skin gets oily, it becomes shiny. Equipment with worn off paint is also shiny. Even
painted objects, if smooth, may shine. Glass objects such as mirrors, glasses, binoculars,
and telescopes shine. You must cover these glass objects when not in use. Anything that
shines automatically attracts attention and will give away your location.
Whenever possible, wash oily skin and reapply camouflage. Skin oil will wash off
camouflage, so reapply it frequently. If you must wear glasses, camouflage them by
applying a thin layer of dust to the outside of the lenses. This layer of dust will reduce the
reflection of light. Cover shiny spots on equipment by painting, covering with mud, or
wrapping with cloth or tape. Pay particular attention to covering boot eyelets, buckles on
equipment, watches and jewelry, zippers, and uniform insignia. Carry a signal mirror in its
designed pouch or in a pocket with the mirror portion facing your body.

Shadow
When hiding or traveling, stay in the deepest part of the shadows. The outer edges of the
shadows are lighter and the deeper parts are darker. Remember, if you are in an area
where there is plenty of vegetation, keep as much vegetation between you and a potential
enemy as possible. This action will make it very hard for the enemy to see you as the
vegetation will partially mask you from his view. Forcing an enemy to look through many
layers of masking vegetation will fatigue his eyes very quickly.
When traveling, especially in built-up areas at night, be aware of where you cast your
shadow. It may extend out around the comer of a building and give away your position.
Also, if you are in a dark shadow and there is a light source to one side, an enemy on the
other side can see your silhouette against the light.

Movement
Movement, especially fast movement, attracts attention. If at all possible, avoid movement
in the presence of an enemy. If capture appears imminent in your present location and you
must move, move away slowly, making as little noise as possible. By moving slowly in a
survival situation, you decrease the chance of detection and conserve energy that you may
need for long-term survival or long-distance evasion.
When moving past obstacles, avoid going over them. If you must climb over an obstacle,
keep your body level with its top to avoid silhouetting yourself. Do not silhouette yourself
against the skyline when crossing hills or ridges. When you are moving, you will have
difficulty detecting the movement of others. Stop frequently, listen, and look around slowly
to detect signs of hostile movement.
Noise
Noise attracts attention, especially if there is a sequence of loud noises such as several
snapping twigs. If possible, avoid making any noise at all. Slow down your pace as much as
necessary to avoid making noise when moving around or away from possible threats.
Use background noises to cover the noise of your movement. Sounds of aircraft, trucks,
generators, strong winds, and people talking will cover some or all the sounds produced by
your movement. Rain will mask a lot of movement noise, but it also reduces your ability to
detect potential enemy noise.

Scent
Whether hunting animals or avoiding the enemy, it is always wise to camouflage the scent
associated with humans. Start by washing yourself and your clothes without using soap.
This washing method removes soap and body odors. Avoiding strong smelling foods, such
as garlic, helps reduce body odors. Do not use tobacco products, candy, gum, or cosmetics.
You can use aromatic herbs or plants to wash yourself and your clothing, to rub on your
body and clothing, or to chew on to camouflage your breath. Pine needles, mint, or any
similar aromatic plant will help camouflage your scent from both animals and humans.
Standing in smoke from a fire can help mask your scent from animals. While animals are
afraid of fresh smoke from a fire, older smoke scents are normal smells after forest fires
and do not scare them.
While traveling, use your sense of smell to help you find or avoid humans. Pay attention to
smells associated with humans, such as fire, cigarettes, gasoline, oil, soap, and food. Such
smells may alert you to their presence long before you can see or hear them, depending on
wind speed and direction. Note the wind’s direction and, when possible, approach from or
skirt around on the downwind side when nearing humans or animals.

METHODS OF STALKING
Sometimes you need to move, undetected, to or from a location. You need more than just
camouflage to make these moves successfully. The ability to stalk or move without making
any sudden quick movement or loud noise is essential to avoiding detection.
You must practice stalking if it is to be effective. Use the following techniques when
practicing.

Upright Stalking
Take steps about half your normal stride when stalking in the upright position. Such strides
help you to maintain your balance. You should be able to stop at any point in that
movement and hold that position as long as necessary. Curl the toes up out of the way
when stepping down so the outside edge of the ball of the foot touches the ground. Feel for
sticks and twigs that may snap when you place your weight on them. If you start to step on
one, lift your foot and move it. After making contact with the outside edge of the ball of
your foot, roll to the inside ball of your foot, place your heel down, followed by your toes.
Then gradually shift your weight forward to the front foot. Lift the back foot to about knee
height and start the process over again.
Keep your hands and arms close to your body and avoid waving them about or hitting
vegetation. When moving in a crouch, you gain extra support by placing your hands on
your knees. One step usually takes 1 minute to complete, but the time it takes will depend
on the situation.

Crawling
Crawl on your hands and knees when the vegetation is too low to allow you to walk upright
without being seen. Move one limb at a time and be sure to set it down softly, feeling for
anything that may snap and make noise. Be careful that your toes and heels do not catch
on vegetation.

Prone Stalking
To stalk in the prone position, you do a low, modified push-up on your hands and toes,
moving yourself forward slightly, and then lowering yourself again slowly. Avoid dragging
and scraping along the ground as this makes excessive noise and leaves large trails for
trackers to follow.

Animal Stalking
Before stalking an animal, select the best route. If the animal is moving, you will need an
intercepting route. Pick a route that puts objects between you and the animal to conceal
your movement from it. By positioning yourself in this way, you will be able to move faster,
until you pass that object. Some objects, such as large rocks and trees, may totally conceal
you, and others, such as small bushes and grass, may only partially conceal you. Pick the
route that offers the best concealment and requires the least amount of effort.
Keep your eyes on the animal and stop when it looks your way or turns its ears your way,
especially if it suspects your presence. As you get close, squint your eyes slightly to conceal
both the light-dark contrast of the whites of the eyes and any shine from your eyes. Keep
your mouth closed so that the animal does not see the whiteness or shine of your teeth.

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