Successful use of plants in a survival situation depends on positive
identification. Knowing poisonous plants is as important to a survivor as
knowing edible plants. Knowing the poisonous plants will help you avoid
sustaining injuries from them.
HOW PLANTS POISON
Plants generally poison by–
• Ingestion. When a person eats a part of a poisonous plant.
• Contact. When a person makes contact with a poisonous plant that causes any type
of skin irritation or dermatitis.
• Absorption or inhalation. When a person either absorbs the poison through the skin
or inhales it into the respiratory system.
Plant poisoning ranges from minor irritation to death. A common question asked is, “How
poisonous is this plant?” It is difficult to say how poisonous plants are because–
• Some plants require contact with a large amount of the plant before noticing any
adverse reaction while others will cause death with only a small amount.
• Every plant will vary in the amount of toxins it contains due to different growing
conditions and slight variations in subspecies.
• Every person has a different level of resistance to toxic substances.
• Some persons may be more sensitive to a particular plant.
Some common misconceptions about poisonous plants are–
• Watch the animals and eat what they eat. Most of the time this statement is true, but
some animals can eat plants that are poisonous to humans.
• Boil the plant in water and any poisons will be removed. Boiling removes many
poisons, but not all.
• Plants with a red color are poisonous. Some plants that are red are poisonous, but
The point is there is no one rule to aid in identifying poisonous plants. You must make an
effort to learn as much about them as possible.
ALL ABOUT PLANTS
It is to your benefit to learn as much about plants as possible. Many poisonous plants look
like their edible relatives or like other edible plants. For example, poison hemlock appears
very similar to wild carrot. Certain plants are safe to eat in certain seasons or stages of
growth and poisonous in other stages. For example, the leaves of the pokeweed are edible
when it first starts to grow, but it soon becomes poisonous. You can eat some plants and
their fruits only when they are ripe. For example, the ripe fruit of mayapple is edible, but all
other parts and the green fruit are poisonous. Some plants contain both edible and
poisonous parts; potatoes and tomatoes are common plant foods, but their green parts are
Some plants become toxic after wilting. For example, when the black cherry starts to wilt,
hydrocyanic acid develops. Specific preparation methods make some plants edible that are
poisonous raw. You can eat the thinly sliced and thoroughly dried corms (drying may take a
year) of the jack-in-the-pulpit, but they are poisonous if not thoroughly dried.
Learn to identify and use plants before a survival situation. Some sources of information
about plants are pamphlets, books, films, nature trails, botanical gardens, local markets,
and local natives. Gather and cross-reference information from as many sources as
possible, because many sources will not contain all the information needed.
RULES FOR AVOIDING POISONOUS PLANTS
Your best policy is to be able to look at a plant and identify it with absolute certainty and to
know its uses or dangers. Many times this is not possible. If you have little or no knowledge
of the local vegetation, use the rules to select plants for the “Universal Edibility Test.”
Remember, avoid —
• All mushrooms. Mushroom identification is very difficult and must be precise, even
more so than with other plants. Some mushrooms cause death very quickly. Some
mushrooms have no known antidote. Two general types of mushroom poisoning are
gastrointestinal and central nervous system.
• Contact with or touching plants unnecessarily.
Contact dermatitis from plants will usually cause the most trouble in the field. The effects
may be persistent, spread by scratching, and are particularly dangerous if there is contact
in or around the eyes.
The principal toxin of these plants is usually an oil that gets on the skin upon contact with
the plant. The oil can also get on equipment and then infect whoever touches the
equipment. Never bum a contact poisonous plant because the smoke may be as harmful as
the plant. There is a greater danger of being affected when overheated and sweating. The
infection may be local or it may spread over the body.
Symptoms may take from a few hours to several days to appear. Signs and symptoms can
include burning, reddening, itching, swelling, and blisters.
When you first contact the poisonous plants or the first symptoms appear, try to remove
the oil by washing with soap and cold water. If water is not available, wipe your skin
repeatedly with dirt or sand. Do not use dirt if blisters have developed. The dirt may break
open the blisters and leave the body open to infection. After you have removed the oil, dry
the area. You can wash with a tannic acid solution and crush and rub jewelweed on the
affected area to treat plant-caused rashes. You can make tannic acid from oak bark.
Poisonous plants that cause contact dermatitis are–
• Poison ivy.
• Poison oak.
• Poison sumac.
• Rengas tree.
• Trumpet vine.
Ingestion poisoning can be very serious and could lead to death very quickly. Do not eat
any plant unless you have positively identified it first. Keep a log of all plants eaten.
Signs and symptoms of ingestion poisoning can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
abdominal cramps, depressed heartbeat and respiration, headaches, hallucinations, dry
mouth, unconsciousness, coma, and death.
If you suspect plant poisoning, try to remove the poisonous material from the victim’s
mouth and stomach as soon as possible. Induce vomiting by tickling the back of his throat
or by giving him warm saltwater, if he is conscious. Dilute the poison by administering large
quantities of water or milk, if he is conscious.
The following plants can cause ingestion poisoning if eaten:
• Castor bean.
• Death camas.
• Physic nut.
• Poison and water hemlocks.
• Rosary pea.
• Strychnine tree.