After having solved the problems of finding water, shelter, and animal food,
you will have to consider the use of plants you can eat. In a survival situation
you should always be on the lookout for familiar wild foods and live off the
land whenever possible.
You must not count on being able to go for days without food as some sources
would suggest. Even in the most static survival situation, maintaining health
through a complete and nutritious diet is essential to maintaining strength
and peace of mind.
Nature can provide you with food that will let you survive any ordeal, if you
don’t eat the wrong plant. You must therefore learn as much as possible
beforehand about the flora of the region where you will be operating. Plants
can provide you with medicines in a survival situation. Plants can supply you
with weapons and raw materials to construct shelters and build fires. Plants
can even provide you with chemicals for poisoning fish, preserving animal
hides, and for camouflaging yourself and your equipment.
Note: You will find illustrations of the plants described in this chapter in
Appendixes B and C.
EDIBILITY OF PLANTS
Plants are valuable sources of food because they are widely available, easily procured, and,
in the proper combinations, can meet all your nutritional needs.
The critical factor in using plants for food is to avoid accidental poisoning. Eat only those
plants you can positively identify and you know are safe to eat.
Absolutely identify plants before using them as food. Poison hemlock has killed people who
mistook it for its relatives, wild carrots and wild parsnips.
At times you may find yourself in a situation for which you could not plan. In this instance
you may not have had the chance to learn the plant life of the region in which you must
survive. In this case you can use the Universal Edibility Test to determine which plants you
can eat and those to avoid.
It is important to be able to recognize both cultivated and wild edible plants in a survival
situation. Most of the information in this chapter is directed towards identifying wild plants
because information relating to cultivated plants is more readily available.
Remember the following when collecting wild plants for food:
• Plants growing near homes and occupied buildings or along roadsides may have
been sprayed with pesticides. Wash them thoroughly. In more highly developed
countries with many automobiles, avoid roadside plants, if possible, due to
contamination from exhaust emissions.
• Plants growing in contaminated water or in water containing Giardia lamblia and
other parasites are contaminated themselves. Boil or disinfect them.
• Some plants develop extremely dangerous fungal toxins. To lessen the chance of
accidental poisoning, do not eat any fruit that is starting to spoil or showing signs of
mildew or fungus.
• Plants of the same species may differ in their toxic or subtoxic compounds content
because of genetic or environmental factors. One example of this is the foliage of the
common chokecherry. Some chokecherry plants have high concentrations of deadly
cyanide compounds while others have low concentrations or none. Horses have died
from eating wilted wild cherry leaves. Avoid any weed, leaves, or seeds with an
almondlike scent, a characteristic of the cyanide compounds.
• Some people are more susceptible to gastric distress (from plants) than others. If you
are sensitive in this way, avoid unknown wild plants. If you are extremely sensitive to
poison ivy, avoid products from this family, including any parts from sumacs,
mangoes, and cashews.
• Some edible wild plants, such as acorns and water lily rhizomes, are bitter. These
bitter substances, usually tannin compounds, make them unpalatable. Boiling them
in several changes of water will usually remove these bitter properties.
• Many valuable wild plants have high concentrations of oxalate compounds, also
known as oxalic acid. Oxalates produce a sharp burning sensation in your mouth and
throat and damage the kidneys. Baking, roasting, or drying usually destroys these
oxalate crystals. The corm (bulb) of the jack-in-the-pulpit is known as the “Indian
turnip,” but you can eat it only after removing these crystals by slow baking or by
Do not eat mushrooms in a survival situation! The only way to tell if a mushroom is edible is
by positive identification. There is no room for experimentation. Symptoms of the most
dangerous mushrooms affecting the central nervous system may show up after several
days have passed when it is too late to reverse their effects.
You identify plants, other than by memorizing particular varieties through familiarity, by
using such factors as leaf shape and margin, leaf arrangements, and root structure.
The basic leaf margins (Figure 9-1) are toothed, lobed, and toothless or smooth.
These leaves may be lance-shaped, elliptical, egg-shaped, oblong, wedge-shaped,
triangular, long-pointed, or top-shaped (Figure 9-2).
The basic types of leaf arrangements (Figure 9-3) are opposite, alternate, compound,
simple, and basal rosette.
The basic types of root structures (Figure 9-4) are the bulb, clove, taproot, tuber, rhizome,
corm, and crown. Bulbs are familiar to us as onions and, when sliced in half, will show
concentric rings. Cloves are those bulblike structures that remind us of garlic and will
separate into small pieces when broken apart. This characteristic separates wild onions
from wild garlic. Taproots resemble carrots and may be single-rooted or branched, but
usually only one plant stalk arises from each root. Tubers are like potatoes and day-lilies
and you will find these structures either on strings or in clusters underneath the parent
plants. Rhizomes are large creeping rootstock or underground stems and many plants arise
from the “eyes” of these roots. Corms are similar to bulbs but are solid when cut rather
than possessing rings. A crown is the type of root structure found on plants such as
asparagus and looks much like a mophead under the soil’s surface.
Learn as much as possible about plants you intend to use for food and their unique
characteristics. Some plants have both edible and poisonous parts. Many are edible only at
certain times of the year. Others may have poisonous relatives that look very similar to the
ones you can eat or use for medicine.
Universal Edibility Test
There are many plants throughout the world. Tasting or swallowing even a small portion of
some can cause severe discomfort, extreme internal disorders, and even death. Therefore,
if you have the slightest doubt about a plant’s edibility, apply the Universal Edibility Test
(Figure 9-5) before eating any portion of it.
Before testing a plant for edibility, make sure there are enough plants to make the testing
worth your time and effort. Each part of a plant (roots, leaves, flowers, and so on) requires
more than 24 hours to test. Do not waste time testing a plant that is not relatively
abundant in the area.
Remember, eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea,
nausea, or cramps. Two good examples of this are such familiar foods as green apples and
wild onions. Even after testing plant food and finding it safe, eat it in moderation.
You can see from the steps and time involved in testing for edibility just how important it is
to be able to identify edible plants.
To avoid potentially poisonous plants, stay away from any wild or unknown plants that
• Milky or discolored sap.
• Beans, bulbs, or seeds inside pods.
• Bitter or soapy taste.
• Spines, fine hairs, or thorns.
• Dill, carrot, parsnip, or parsleylike foliage.
• “Almond” scent in woody parts and leaves.
• Grain heads with pink, purplish, or black spurs.
• Three-leaved growth pattern.
Using the above criteria as eliminators when choosing plants for the Universal Edibility Test
will cause you to avoid some edible plants. More important, these criteria will often help
you avoid plants that are potentially toxic to eat or touch.
An entire encyclopedia of edible wild plants could be written, but space limits the number of
plants presented here. Learn as much as possible about the plant life of the areas where
you train regularly and where you expect to be traveling or working. Listed below and later
in this chapter are some of the most common edible and medicinal plants. Detailed
descriptions and photographs of these and other common plants are at Appendix B.
TEMPERATE ZONE FOOD PLANTS
• Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus and other species)
• Arrowroot (Sagittaria species)
• Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)
• Beechnut (Fagus species)
• Blackberries (Rubus species)
• Blueberries (Vaccinium species)
• Burdock (Arctium lappa)
• Cattail (Typha species)
• Chestnut (Castanea species)
• Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
• Chufa (Cyperus esculentus)
• Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
• Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva)
• Nettle (Urtica species)
• Oaks (Quercus species)
• Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
• Plantain (Plantago species)
• Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)
• Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia species)
• Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
• Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
• Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella)
• Strawberries (Fragaria species)
• Thistle (Cirsium species)
• Water lily and lotus (Nuphar, Nelumbo, and other species)
• Wild onion and garlic (Allium species)
• Wild rose (Rosa species)
• Wood sorrel (Oxalis species)
TROPICAL ZONE FOOD PLANTS
• Bamboo (Bambusa and other species)
• Bananas (Musa species)
• Breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa)
• Cashew nut (Anacardium occidental)
• Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
• Mango (Mangifera indica)
• Palms (various species)
• Papaya (Carica species)
• Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
• Taro (Colocasia species)
DESERT ZONE FOOD PLANTS
• Acacia (Acacia farnesiana)
• Agave (Agave species)
• Cactus (various species)
• Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
• Desert amaranth (Amaranths palmeri)
One plant you should never overlook is seaweed. It is a form of marine algae found on or
near ocean shores. There are also some edible freshwater varieties. Seaweed is a valuable
source of iodine, other minerals, and vitamin C. Large quantities of seaweed in an
unaccustomed stomach can produce a severe laxative effect.
When gathering seaweeds for food, find living plants attached to rocks or floating free.
Seaweed washed onshore any length of time may be spoiled or decayed. You can dry
freshly harvested seaweeds for later use.
Its preparation for eating depends on the type of seaweed. You can dry thin and tender
varieties in the sun or over a fire until crisp. Crush and add these to soups or broths. Boil
thick, leathery seaweeds for a short time to soften them. Eat them as a vegetable or with
other foods. You can eat some varieties raw after testing for edibility.
• Dulse (Rhodymenia palmata)
• Green seaweed (Ulva lactuca)
• Irish moss (Chondrus crispus)
• Kelp (Alaria esculenta)
• Laver (Porphyra species)
• Mojaban (Sargassum fulvellum)
• Sugar wrack (Laminaria saccharina)
Preparation of Plant Food
Although some plants or plant parts are edible raw, you must cook others to be edible or
palatable. Edible means that a plant or food will provide you with necessary nutrients, while
palatable means that it actually is pleasing to eat. Many wild plants are edible but barely
palatable. It is a good idea to learn to identify, prepare, and eat wild foods.
Methods used to improve the taste of plant food include soaking, boiling, cooking, or
leaching. Leaching is done by crushing the food (for example, acorns), placing it in a
strainer, and pouring boiling water through it or immersing it in running water.
Boil leaves, stems, and buds until tender, changing the water, if necessary, to remove any
Boil, bake, or roast tubers and roots. Drying helps to remove caustic oxalates from some
roots like those in the Arum family.
Leach acorns in water, if necessary, to remove the bitterness. Some nuts, such as
chestnuts, are good raw, but taste better roasted.
You can eat many grains and seeds raw until they mature. When hard or dry, you may have
to boil or grind them into meal or flour.
The sap from many trees, such as maples, birches, walnuts, and sycamores, contains
sugar. You may boil these saps down to a syrup for sweetening. It takes about 35 liters of
maple sap to make one liter of maple syrup!
PLANTS FOR MEDICINE
In a survival situation you will have to use what is available. In using plants and other
natural remedies, positive identification of the plants involved is as critical as in using them
for food. Proper use of these plants is equally important.
Terms and Definitions
The following terms, and their definitions, are associated with medicinal plant use:
• Poultice. The name given to crushed leaves or other plant parts, possibly heated,
that you apply to a wound or sore either directly or wrapped in cloth or paper.
• Infusion or tisane or tea. The preparation of medicinal herbs for internal or external
application. You place a small quantity of a herb in a container, pour hot water over
it, and let it steep (covered or uncovered) before use.
• Decoction. The extract of a boiled down or simmered herb leaf or root. You add herb
leaf or root to water. You bring them to a sustained boil or simmer to draw their
chemicals into the water. The average ratio is about 28 to 56 grams (1 to 2 ounces)
of herb to 0.5 liter of water.
• Expressed juice. Liquids or saps squeezed from plant material and either applied to
the wound or made into another medicine.
Many natural remedies work slower than the medicines you know. Therefore, start with
smaller doses and allow more time for them to take effect. Naturally, some will act more
rapidly than others.
The following remedies are for use only in a survival situation, not for routine use:
• Diarrhea. Drink tea made from the roots of blackberries and their relatives to stop
diarrhea. White oak bark and other barks containing tannin are also effective.
However, use them with caution when nothing else is available because of possible
negative effects on the kidneys. You can also stop diarrhea by eating white clay or
campfire ashes. Tea made from cowberry or cranberry or hazel leaves works too.
• Antihemorrhagics. Make medications to stop bleeding from a poultice of the puffball
mushroom, from plantain leaves, or most effectively from the leaves of the common
yarrow or woundwort (Achillea millefolium).
• Antiseptics. Use to cleanse wounds, sores, or rashes. You can make them from the
expressed juice from wild onion or garlic, or expressed juice from chickweed leaves
or the crushed leaves of dock. You can also make antiseptics from a decoction of
burdock root, mallow leaves or roots, or white oak bark. All these medications are for
external use only.
• Fevers. Treat a fever with a tea made from willow bark, an infusion of elder flowers or
fruit, linden flower tea, or elm bark decoction.
• Colds and sore throats. Treat these illnesses with a decoction made from either
plantain leaves or willow bark. You can also use a tea made from burdock roots,
mallow or mullein flowers or roots, or mint leaves.
• Aches, pains, and sprains. Treat with externally applied poultices of dock, plantain,
chickweed, willow bark, garlic, or sorrel. You can also use salves made by mixing the
expressed juices of these plants in animal fat or vegetable oils.
• Itching. Relieve the itch from insect bites, sunburn, or plant poisoning rashes by
applying a poultice of jewelweed (Impatiens biflora) or witch hazel leaves
(Hamamelis virginiana). The jewelweed juice will help when applied to poison ivy
rashes or insect stings. It works on sunburn as well as aloe vera.
• Sedatives. Get help in falling asleep by brewing a tea made from mint leaves or
• Hemorrhoids. Treat them with external washes from elm bark or oak bark tea, from
the expressed juice of plantain leaves, or from a Solomon’s seal root decoction.
• Constipation. Relieve constipation by drinking decoctions from dandelion leaves, rose
hips, or walnut bark. Eating raw daylily flowers will also help.
• Worms or intestinal parasites. Using moderation, treat with tea made from tansy
(Tanacetum vulgare) or from wild carrot leaves.
• Gas and cramps. Use a tea made from carrot seeds as an antiflatulent; use tea made
from mint leaves to settle the stomach.
• Antifungal washes. Make a decoction of walnut leaves or oak bark or acorns to treat
ringworm and athlete’s foot. Apply frequently to the site, alternating with exposure to
MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS
Make dyes from various plants to color clothing or to camouflage your skin.
Usually, you will have to boil the plants to get the best results. Onion skins
produce yellow, walnut hulls produce brown, and pokeberries provide a purple
Make fibers and cordage from plant fibers. Most commonly used are the stems
from nettles and milkweeds, yucca plants, and the inner bark of trees like the
Make fish poison by immersing walnut hulls in a small area of quiet water. This
poison makes it impossible for the fish to breathe but doesn’t adversely affect
Make tinder for starting fires from cattail fluff, cedar bark, lighter knot wood
from pine trees, or hardened sap from resinous wood trees.
Make insulation by fluffing up female cattail heads or milkweed down.
Make insect repellents by applying the expressed juice of wild garlic or onion
to the skin, by placing sassafras leaves in your shelter, or by burning or
smudging cattail seed hair fibers.
Plants can be your ally as long as you use them cautiously. The key to the safe use of
plants is positive identification whether you use them as food or medicine or in constructing
shelters or equipment.